Gideon’s parents Thomas & Sarah Mantell

In 1776 Thomas Mantell, promounced Mantle, married Sarah Austin born 25 Nov 1755 from Peckam Kent and lived together in 16 St Mary’s Lane, Lewes. Thomas Mantell born 21 April 1750 signed himself in documents as a Cordwainer, or shoe maker. He did however also own various buildings in St Mary’s Lane, Fisher Street, St John’s Street and Lancaster Street as well as the Methodist chapel he had built in St Mary’s Lane by the time of his death on 11 July 1807. The first Thomas Mantell came to Lewes in the 1550s and took up important roles in the governing of the town such as Headborough in 1562 and Constable in 1572. The full family story is told in the 2008 book by Dennis Dean Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs http://www.amazon.co.uk/Gideon-Mantell-Discovery-Dinosaurs-Dennis/dp/0521088178

Thomas and Sarah’s fifth child was Gideon Algernon born 3 February 1790 whose middle name reflected his father’s admiration for Algernon Sidney, a republican hero. Together living with Gideon and his parents were older sister Mary (their first child Sarah had died in infancy) and brothers Thomas and Samuel. Later they were joined by younger siblings Joshua, Jemima and, when Sarah was aged about forty five, her eighth child Kezia.

Thomas founded a Methodist chapel opposite the house on St Mary’s Lane in 1788 where Gideon was baptised by the Rev George Barnard on 8 September 1790. Thomas Mantell died in 1807 and was buried in his parish church, St John sub Castro graveyard along with other members of the Mantell family. In 1812 Gideon is recorded as back from London living with Sarah who was listed as owner of the family home, before taking up his medical practice with Dr Moore on the High Street around the corner. In December 1828 Sarah died age 73, Gideon wrote in his diary “my poor mother was interred this morning in a steined grave close to my father, who was buried 22 years since”.

Grave of Thomas and Sarah Mantell

Grave of Thomas and Sarah Mantell, Gideon’s parents

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Gideon Mantell in the news

They’re Back a recent Guardian article on Dinosaurs made much of Richard Owen and his dinosaour park at Crystal Palace but seemed to have totally overlooked Mantell’s contribution to the story by his finding and naming of the Iguanodon. A letter in the Guardian 19 June 2015 has attempted to put this right  http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jun/18/monster-dinosaur-find-deserves-recognition

The long standing rivalry between Owen and Mantell was well described in Deborah Cadbury’s book Dinosaur Hunters: A True Story of Scientific Rivalry and the Discovery of the Prehistoric World. Fourth Estate; 2000 (reviewed here  http://www.theguardian.com/books/2000/oct/15/historybooks.scienceandnature).

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Booth Museum of Natural History

If you are in Dyke Road in Brighton do not forget to visit the collection of fossils in the Booth Museum. There is a description of what you can see on their website http://brightonmuseums.org.uk/discover/collections/natural-sciences/fossil-collection-catalogue/ Here you can also read about the origins of the Booth Museum and how Mantell ended up in Brighton with his own museum collection of fossils and natural specimens.

Thanks to John A. Cooper BSc AMA FGS Keeper of Natural Sciences, Booth Museum of Natural History, 194 Dyke Road ,Brighton, BN1 5AA

 

 

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Who exactly found the iguanodon tooth?

Gideon Mantell’s life was full of exploration and learning and he wrote and published about it extensively but one mystery remains; who actually found the original iguanodon tooth? The story goes that Mary Ann Mantell accompanied her husband Gideon on a journey one day in 1822 and while he was visiting one of his patients she spotted a strangely coloured item by the road side in a pile of stones left by some road builders. She immediatly spotted the significance and showed it to her husband who went on to publish the find as evidence of a giant land lizard the Iguano-don (tooth of an iguana) in 1825. He later changed the story to being “found by me”. We know that later on Gideon and his wife separated; with her leaving him and her children, possibly exasperated by his obsessions with ancient stones and bones. Was she written out of the history books or is there a different explanation?  Anthony Booth of West Sussex Geological Society gave a talk on Tuesday 24th February 2015 at Council Chamber, Lewes Town Hall  looking for a different explanation. By delving into the sources such as Mantell’s published and unpublished diaries  he attempted to discover whether Mantell was already in posession of fossil “teeth” before the date of the supposed original find.At the close of the talk he asked the people present for a show of hands. Most in the room were still for Mary Mantell  – after all why would Gideon have lied when he wrote himself that “the first specimens of the teeth were found by Mrs Mantell in the course conglomerate of the forest”. See Mantell’s Illustrations of Geology of Sussex  1822  Vol 1 p 54 nos 40, 41.The fossils of the South Downs, or, Illustrations of the geology of Sussex pages 54-55. The illustrations of the first teeth found that appear in the publication were produced by Mary Ann Mantell. The case against this explanation was not therefore proven. However whatever the actual truths the whole story of the finding, identifying and naming of the first known land dinosaur is still of major national and international importance.

The actual tooth is kept in the Te Papa museum in New Zealand where the Mantells’ eldest son Walter emigrated to and who received many of the Mantell papers and artefacts after Gideon’s death. See a description of it at http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/topic/2166

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How to find original Mantell publications

Mantell’s books can be viewed as facsimiles or as paperback reprints but to handle or own one of Gideon Mantell’s original publications is a special thing. These books can be quite expensive, for example his Geology of the South East England (1833) can be in the high hundreds. Some of the books are quite rare as they were produced by subscription and have hand produced plates in them.

Places to buy originals includes the Bow Windows Book Shop in Lewes.

Or search the regular book fairs in Lewes Town Hall. There you can usually find Alan Ticehurst who may have one of Mantell’s originals for sale. Or he can seek them out for you. Contact him on 01323 641912 or email alanticehurst@talktalk.net. If you do so please let him know you found out about him here.

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Gideon Mantell’s last resting place

As he was living on Clapham Common when his beloved daughter Hannah died Mantell had her buried nearby in West Norwood cemetery. He stated that he wished to be buried with her on his own death which explains why this son of Lewes who was by then living in central London is buried in West Norwood outer London.

His grave can be found at grave 273, square 99. The following description of his funeral comes from The Friends of West Norwood Cemetery (FOWNC) Newsletter No 46

Mantell’s funeral followed the instructions he deposited with his wife’s nephew, Alfred Woodhouse, buried ‘by the side of my beloved child’ in Norwood Cemetery, with the funeral ‘as plain as possible, and to take place in the early morning’. The hearse, drawn by four horses, was accompanied by two other coaches, one being his own, presumably driven by his coachman Thomas. His daughter Ellen Maria, sister Mary West, Alfred Woodhouse, his solicitor Mr Williams, Charles Pritchard, Headmaster of Clapham School, Joseph Dinkel, the artist who worked with him for 20 years, and Hannah his cook were at the graveside with the service performed by the Reverend Kemble from Clapham. His wife, probably living in Cambridgeshire at the time, did not attend although Mantell hoped she would. He had drawn the outline of a plain monument to be placed over the graves and the Portland stone tomb subsequently placed there was designed by Amon Henry Wilds, son of Amon Wilds who had remodelled Mantell’s home, Castle Place in Lewes.

Thanks to Bob Flanagan of the FOWNC for the attached pictures of Mantell’s grave show it before and after restoration, necessary as it was sinking into the ground. The design by Wilds is meant to be a near perfect replica in form, but not in the applied detail, of the Bark Stand in the sanctuary of the Temple of Amun at Naqa, Sudan, (684-680 BC) dating from the 1st century AD in the reign of King Natakamani and Queen Amanitore. See the Friends of West Norwood Cemetery Newsletter No 52 for more on the influences underpinning Amon Wilds’ work.

As a GradeII* listed monument the restoration work had to be carried out with the aid of English Heritage  Although broken into pieces by the contractors the original is now in Lewes in the care of Sussex Archaeological Society.  It is hoped by Mantell’s many local fans that a true homecoming back to Lewes can be arranged for Gideon Mantell – by bring them out from the cellar and locating them somewhere in Lewes as a tribute to this national and international local hero.

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The Unpublished Journal of Gideon Mantell 1819-1852

In 1818 Mantell began to keep a Journal – as he called it – “a sketch of passing events”. The original copies of the Journal – together with all the remaining archives of Mantell are kept in the Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington, New Zealand to where one of his sons had emigrated. In 1940, E. Cecil Curwen published about half of this extensive record of Mantell’s often turbulent life and times. The unpublished parts have remained somewhat elusive until now. However if you follow the link below you can download the pdf version  of the rest.

Many thanks to John Cooper of Brighton and Hove Museums whose decade long dedication to untangling the unpublished from the published parts of the journals results in this being available today.

http://www.brighton-hove-rpml.org.uk/HistoryAndCollections/aboutcollections/naturalsciences/Pages/Theunpublishedjournalofgideonmantell.aspx

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